For a March 6, 2012, update to this post, please go here.
After investing half a day in trouble shooting the synchronization of calendars between Outlook in Microsoft Office 2011 on a MacBook Pro and Google Calendar, I can attest that it cannot be completely automated. Despite their impressive collective talent, the men and women of Apple, Google and Microsoft are unable or, more likely, unwilling to work together to accomplish this.
The best that can be done is to link calendar items in Outlook to iCal and link calendar items in Google to iCal. Items created in either Google or Outlook will display in iCal. If you want an item from Google to display in Outlook or an item in Outlook to display in Google, you will have to use the “duplicate” function in iCal to copy the item. Once the item is copied then click on “calendar” to link the copied item to the appropriate calendar. If the item that is to be duplicated is from Google then you have to change the calendar for the duplicated item to Outlook and vice versa.
My next effort will be to search for third part software that can automate this. If anyone is aware of the availability of such software, please let me know.